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Cognitive flexibility

Cognitive flexibility is the brain’s ability to switch between different rules or action plans depending on the context (it is key to many of our everyday activities). A study from MIT has found that a region of the thalamus called the mediodorsal thalamus, suppresses representations that are not currently needed. That suppression also protects the…

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Error band

The range of maximum deviation of the transducer output from a reference curve due to the transducer is defined as error band; said deviation (which is generally expressed in percent of the full scale) can be caused by non-linearity, non-repeatability, hysteresis, etc.; it is determined by several consecutive calibration cycles so as to include repeatability.…

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Passive device

Components incapable of controlling current by means of another electrical signal are called passive devices. Resistors, capacitors, inductors, transformers, and even diodes are all considered passive devices. See also Active device

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Adenomere

An adenomere is a secreting unit of a gland (salivary glands) and secretory subunits of lobules. Endocrine or exocrine, it is formed by cells that process the secretion product of the gland. In the exocrine glands (and thyroid) it is an inner cavity structure, in which the secretion of the cells that make up the…

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Algebraic geometry

Traditionally, algebraic geometry was the geometry of complex number solutions to polynomial equations. Modern algebraic geometry is also concerned with algebraic varieties, which are a generalization of such solution sets, as well as solutions in fields other than complex numbers, for example, finite fields. Algebraic geometry is among the broadest and most active subjects in…

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Celestial axis

The celestial axis is the projection of Earth’s rotation axis, north and south, onto the celestial sphere.

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Operation

In mathematics an operation (arithmetic) is defined as a relationship between numbers: starting from at least two numbers, called “operands,” a single result is obtained (which is also a number), depending on the type of operation or “operator” used. A symbol called the operator identifies each operation: addition subtraction multiplication division In extension to the…

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Electric thermometer

Electric thermometers are temperature transducers that exploit the phenomena of resistance variation, or the generation of an electromotive force, due to a temperature change. The transport of electrical charges in materials is a process whose modalities may partly depend on temperature. Generally, in industrial applications, electric thermometers are the most widespread, since it is possible…

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Superconductivity

Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature. When conductors lose all of their electrical resistance when cooled to super-low temperatures (near absolute zero, about -273 °C). It must be understood that superconductivity is not…

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