# Chemistry

Chemistry is the study of matter, its properties, how and why substances combine or separate to form other substances, and how substances interact with energy.

## Analytical chemistry

Analytical chemistry is the study of the composition of matter.…

## Inorganic chemistry

Inorganic chemistry is the study of chemicals that do not,…

## Organic chemistry

Organic chemistry is the study of chemicals containing carbon with…

## Physical chemistry

Physical chemistry is the study of macroscopic properties, atomic properties,…

## Melting point

The melting point is the temperature at which a substance starts to…

## Chemical energy

Chemical energy is the potential energy stored in the bonds…

## Entropy

Entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system, and it is a…

## Electronegativity

Whether a bond is nonpolar or polar covalent is determined…

## Linus Pauling

Linus Pauling is the only person to have received two…

## Monosaccharide

Monosaccharides (mono- = “one”; sacchar- = “sweet”) are simple sugars,…

## Carbon

The unique properties of carbon make it a central part…

## Enantiomer

Enantiomers are molecules that share the same chemical structure and…

## Isomer

Molecules that share the same chemical formula but differ in…

## Enthalpy of fusion

The enthalpy of fusion of a substance (or heat of…

## Enthalpy of sublimation

The heat of sublimation (or enthalpy of sublimation) is the…

## Enthalpy of condensation

The enthalpy of condensation (or heat of condensation) is by…

## Enthalpy of vaporization

The enthalpy of vaporization (or heat of vaporization) is the…

## Enthalpy

If a chemical change is carried out at constant pressure…

## Melting

Melting, or fusion, is the process by which a substance…

## Boiling point

The boiling point is defined as a thermodynamic state, defined…

## Nuclear potential energy

Nuclear potential energy is the potential energy of the particles…

## Internal energy

Internal energy is a property of a thermodynamic system. In…

## Law of multiple proportions

Many combinations of elements can react to form more than…

## Law of definite proportions

Joseph Proust (1754-1826) formulated the law of definite proportions (also called…

## Covalent bonding

Covalent bonds are formed between two atoms when both have…

## Ion

An ion is an atom or molecule that has a…

## Ionic liquid

An ionic liquid (IL) is a salt in the liquid…

## Ionic bonding

Ionic bonding results from the electrostatic attraction of oppositely charged…

## Isotope

Atoms of the same element with the same number of…

## Electrolyte

An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting…

## Mixture

The matter composed of two or more substances – which…

## Substance

Any sample of matter that has the same physical and…

## Molarity

The molarity (M) or molar concentration, represents the unit of…

## Chemical reaction

Chemical reactions occur when two or more atoms bond together…

## Quantum spin liquid (QSL)

The quantum spin liquid is a state of matter that…

## Zwitterion

In chemistry, a zwitterion, formerly called a dipolar ion, is…

## Atom

The elements that compose the ordinary matter are formed by…

## Alpha particle (alpha ray)

The alpha rays or alpha particles ($$\alpha$$ particle) are a…

## Anion

An anion is a chemical species (formed by one or…

## Anionotropy

The transformation due to the migration of an anionic (nucleophile)…

## Molecule

A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or…

## Electron

The electron is a negatively charged, subatomic particle of relatively…

## Electron affinity

The electron affinity of an element is a measurable physical quantity, namely,…

## Proton

The proton is positively charged, subatomic particle located in the…

## Neutron

The neutron is an uncharged, subatomic particle $$(\sim 10^{-15}\;\textrm{m})$$ consisting…

## Glass

The glass is a non-equilibrium, non-crystalline condensed state of matter…

## Superglass

A superglass is a state of matter which is characterized…

## Liquid crystal

Liquid crystals (LCs) are a state of matter which has…

## Superfluid

Superfluidity is a special quantum state of matter in which…

## Supersolid

A supersolid is a spatially ordered material with superfluid properties.…

## Bose-Einstein condensate

A Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter (first…

## Fermionic condensate

A fermionic condensate is a superfluid state of matter formed…

## Rydberg molecule

A Rydberg molecule is an electronically excited chemical species. Electronically…

## Copolymer

A copolymer is a polymer derived from more than one…

## Quantum Hall state

A quantum Hall state gives rise to quantized Hall voltage…

## Photon

The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum…

## Photonic molecule

Photonic molecules are a theoretical natural state of matter which…

## Dropleton

A dropleton or quantum droplet is a quasiparticle comprising a…

## Degenerate matter

Degenerate matter is a highly dense state of fermionic matter…

## Quark matter

Quark matter or QCD matter refers to any of a…

## Metal

Metals are a material that typically can be found in…

## Metallic bonding

Metallic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that rises…

## Aeriform

The aeriforms have high compressibility and, in the absence of…

## Amount of substance (mole)

The amount of substance is a basic (or fundamental) quantity…

## Air

Air is the mixture of gases that exist above the…

## Absorbance

In spectroscopy, absorbance or decadic absorbance it is the amount…

## Energy

Energy is defined as a measurement of the ability to do work or to heat an…

## Plasma

The plasma is the highest-energy state hot ionized gas consisting of approximately…

## Gas

A gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter. In gases,…

## Perfect or ideal gases

A perfect gas (or ideal gas) is defined as a…

## Noble gas

The noble gases (historically called also the inert gases, but…

## Liquid

In liquids, the atoms or molecules are not as tightly bound…

## Solid

A solid is a state of matter in which atoms…

## Amorphous solid

In amorphous solids (literally “solids without form” or non-crystalline solids) the particles do…

## Metallic solid

The metallic solids (consisting of a metallic bond) are formed…

## Covalent network solid

Covalent network solids there are no individual molecules, the atoms…

## Molecular solid

Molecular solids are composed of discrete molecules. The cohesive forces that…

## Ionic solid

The crystal lattice of ionic solids consists of monoatomic or…

## Crystalline solids

Crystalline solids are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure,…

## Absorption

Absorption may have different definitions depending on the field of…

## Scientific method

The scientific method is an investigative process for experimentation and…

## Scientific notation

In many disciplines of science and engineering, very large and…

## Specific volume

The specific volume, $$\nu$$, of a substance is the ratio of…

## Solvent

A solvent is a medium in which a solute is…

## Matter

The matter is any substance (composed of various types of…

## Plastic

Plastic is an organic material consisting mainly of pure or…

## Diamine

Diamines are chemical compounds, aliphatic or aromatic, containing two amino…

## Moplen

Moplen® is the registered trademark of isotactic polypropylene (PP-H), produced…

## Oxidoreductase

In biochemistry, an oxidoreductase is an enzyme that catalyzes oxidoreduction…

## Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)

Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) is an essential enzyme in the tricarboxylic…

An adhesive is a substance that bonds two surfaces to…

## Chemistry

Chemistry is the study of matter, its properties, how and…

## Stoichiometry

Stoichiometry is the branch of Chemistry that studies and measure…