# Physics

## Magnetostatics

In physics, magnetostatics is the branch of electromagnetism that studies…

## Magnetic dipole

A magnetic dipole, in magnetostatics, is a magnet obtained by…

## Electric dipole

An electric dipole, in electrostatics, it is a system consisting of…

## Tension

In physics, the mechanical tension is a force exerted on…

## Strong interaction

The strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong…

## Electromotive force

Electromotive force, abbreviated emf (denoted with $$\mathcal{E}$$ and measured in…

## Scalar

In phyics a scalar quantity is a quantity that is…

## Physical chemistry

Physical chemistry is the study of macroscopic properties, atomic properties,…

## Relative density (specific gravity)

The density of a substance referred to the density of…

## Density

Density is the amount of mass per unit volume of…

## Electric charge

In physics, the electric charge is a property of the…

## Electric field

The electric field (sometimes abbreviated as E-field) is a vector…

## Electric potential

The electric potential (also called the electric field potential, potential…

## Thermal conduction

Thermal conduction (or diffusion) is the transfer of heat (internal energy) by…

## Convection

Convection is a type of transport (of matter and energy),…

Advection is the transport of a substance (and its properties)…

## Magnetic skyrmion

Magnetic skyrmions are magnetic swirls that may lead to new…

## Work

The scientific definition of work reveals its relationship to energy—whenever…

## Quantum chromodynamics binding energy

Quantum chromodynamics binding energy (QCD binding energy), gluon binding energy…

## Rest energy

The rest energy $$E_0$$ of a particle is defined as:…

## Kinetic energy

Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. It is defined…

## Seismic wave

Seismic waves are the waves of energy caused by earthquakes,…

## Mechanical wave energy

Mechanical wave energy is kinetic and potential energy in an…

## Wind wave energy

Wind waves energy have a certain amount of randomness: subsequent…

## Mechanical energy

Mechanical energy is the sum of macroscopic translational and rotational…

## Magnetic energy

Magnetic energy is the potential energy due to or stored…

## Electric energy

Electric energy the energy newly derived from electric potential energy…

## Elastic energy

Elastic energy is potential energy related to elastic force, stored in…

## Gravitational energy

Gravitational energy is the potential energy a body with mass…

Radiant energy is the potential energy stored in the fields…

## Thermal energy

It is called thermal energy that form of energy that…

## Potential energy

An object can store energy as the result of its…

## Wave

A wave is a perturbation that propagates in space and…

## Triboelectric effect

The triboelectric effect (also known as triboelectric charging) is a type of…

## Light

Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation that is visible…

## Magnetic field

The magnetic induction field or magnetic field $$(\vec{B})$$ is a…

## Pyroelectricity

Pyroelectricity is a property of certain materials (especially crystals which…

## Newton’s first law

Newton’s first law states that an object will continue at…

## Newton’s second law

What about cases where the total force on an object…

## Newton’s third law

Newton’s third law states that all forces in nature occur…

## Kagome metal

If a metal or other conductive material could be made…

## Center of mass

The center of mass of an object is the point…

## Acceleration

To accelerate means to speed up. The greater the acceleration,…

## Speed

The terms “speed” and “velocity” are not interchangeable, they do…

## Force

The force may be thought of as an influence which tends…

## Diamagnetism

Diamagnetic materials are repelled by a magnetic field; an applied…

## Paramagnetism

Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism whereby certain materials are…

## Heat

Heat is defined as the transfer of thermal energy across…

## Heat flux

Heat flux (or thermal flux, sometimes also referred to as heat flux density…

## Latent heat

Latent heat is the quantity of heat required to bring…

## Heat capacity

Heat capacity, $$C$$, also called thermal capacity, is the amount…

## Ferromagnetism

Ferromagnetism is the basic mechanism by which certain materials (such…

## Ferrimagnetism

Ferrimagnetism is exhibited by ferrites and oxide of iron called…

## Humidity

Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air,…

## Saturation deficit

Saturation deficit is the amount by which the water vapor…

## Mixing ratio

Mixing ratio is a measure of humidity in terms of…

## Specific humidity

Specific humidity is the ratio of the mass of water…

## Relative humidity

Relative humidity is the amount of water vapour present in…

## Absolute humidity

Absolute humidity is the ratio of the mass of water…

## Buoyancy

Buoyancy or upthrust is an upward force exerted by a…

## Friction

Friction can be defined as the force between surfaces in contact…

## Superconductivity

Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and…

## Elasticity

Elasticity is the ability of a body to resist a…

## Phonon

A phonon is a collective excitation in a periodic, elastic…

## Reference frame

A frame of reference (or reference frame) is a mathematical…

## Lepton

Leptons are a group of elementary particles belonging to the…

## Torque (moment of force)

A torque (called also moment, or moment of force) is…

## Velocity

The velocity of an object is a physical vector quantity…

## Motion

In physics, the motion of an object is a change…

## Relative motion

Relative motion is the calculation of the motion of an…

## Circular motion

Circular motion is a common type of rotational motion. Like…

## Rotational motion

The rotational motion deals only with rigid bodies. A rigid…

## Translational motion

Translational motion is the motion by which a body shifts…

## Conductivity

The electrons of different types of atoms have different degrees…

## Gravity

Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all…

## Gluon

A gluon is an elementary particle that acts as the…

## Electric current

Dynamic electricity, or electric current, is the uniform motion of…

## Direct current (DC)

Direct current (DC) is electricity flowing in a constant direction,…

## Ampacity

Ampacity is a portmanteau for ampere capacity defined by National…

## Statics

Informally, statics is the study of forces without motion. More…

## Magnon

A magnon is a magnetic quasiparticle, a collective excitation of…

## Paramagnons

Paramagnons are magnons in magnetic materials which are in their…

## Electric circuit

An electric circuit is an unbroken loop of conductive material…

## Dark matter

Dark matter is matter that can’t be detected directly, but…

## Entropy

Entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system, and it is a…

## Enthalpy of fusion

The enthalpy of fusion of a substance (or heat of…

## Enthalpy of sublimation

The heat of sublimation (or enthalpy of sublimation) is the…

## Enthalpy of condensation

The enthalpy of condensation (or heat of condensation) is by…

## Enthalpy of vaporization

The enthalpy of vaporization (or heat of vaporization) is the…

## Enthalpy

If a chemical change is carried out at constant pressure…

## Melting

Melting, or fusion, is the process by which a substance…

## Boiling point

The boiling point is defined as a thermodynamic state, defined…

## Nuclear potential energy

Nuclear potential energy is the potential energy of the particles…

## Internal energy

Internal energy is a property of a thermodynamic system. In…

## Thermodynamic system

Certain quantity of matter or the space which is under…

## Electron

The electron is a negatively charged, subatomic particle of relatively…

## Electron affinity

The electron affinity of an element is a measurable physical quantity, namely,…

## Proton

The proton is positively charged, subatomic particle located in the…

## Neutron

The neutron is an uncharged, subatomic particle $$(\sim 10^{-15}\;\textrm{m})$$ consisting…

## String-net liquid

A string-net is an extended object whose collective behavior has…

## Antiferromagnetism

In materials that exhibit antiferromagnetism, the magnetic moments of atoms…

## Rigid body

A rigid body (also known as rigid object) is defined…

## Electrical impedance

Electrical impedance is a physical quantity that represents the opposition…

## Capacitance

Capacitance is the electrical property of a capacitor and is…

## Baryon asymmetry

In physics, the baryon asymmetry problem, also known as the…

## Plasticity

Plasticity is the capacity to resist plastic deformation (dislocation movement…

## Viscoelasticity

Viscoelasticity is the study of materials which have a time-dependent…

## Piezoelectricity and piezoelectric effect

Piezoelectricity is the property of some crystalline materials (such as…

## Pressure

Pressure is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of…

## Sound pressure

Since audible sound consists of pressure waves, one of the…

## Thermoelectric effect (thermoelectricity)

The term thermoelectricity is intended to represent the set of…

## Joule effect

A conductor crossed by an electric current heats up due…

## Seebeck effect

The Seebeck effect, discovered by Thomas Johann Seebeck in 1821,…

## Peltier effect

The Peltier effect discovered by Jean Charles Athanase Peltier in…

## Thomson effect

The Thomson effect, discovered by William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) in…

## Magnetic liquid

A magnetic liquid is a substance containing in suspension particles…

## Ablation

Ablation is the removal of material from the surface of…

## Absorber

In high energy physics experiments, an absorber is any material…

## Absorptance

Absorptance of the surface of a material is the ratio…

## Absorbance

In spectroscopy, absorbance or decadic absorbance it is the amount…

## Temperature

Temperature is a physical property of a material that gives…

## Equipotential surface

An equipotential surface is therefore defined as the set of…

## Voltage

The potential energy, stored in the form of an electric…

## Apparent weight

Apparent weight is a property of objects that correspond to…

## Specific weight

The weight of a unit volume of a substance is…

## Weight

Weight is the force of gravity acting on an object.…

## Parallax

Parallax is a deceptive change in the relative position of…

## Prandtl number

The Prandtl number (Pr) is a dimensionless number that expresses…

## Reynolds number

The Reynolds number is a dimensionless parameter that represents the…

## Rayleigh number

The Rayleigh number (Ra) is a dimensionless parameter that expresses…

## Grashof number

The Grashof number is a dimensionless parameter which, unlike the…

## Nusselt number

The Nusselt number (Nu) represents the ratio between the heat…

## Noise

In metrology, noise is defined as the set of random…

## Energy

Energy is defined as a measurement of the ability to do work or to heat an…

## Soundwave energy

Soundwave energy is kinetic, and potential energy through a transmission medium…

## Acoustic wave

Acoustic waves (also known as sound waves) are a type…

## Ultrasound

Ultrasounds are mechanical sound waves. Unlike acoustic phenomena, the frequencies…

## Infrasound

Infrasound, sometimes referred to as low-frequency sound, lower in frequency…

## Absorption

Absorption may have different definitions depending on the field of…

## Sound

The sound is defined as a perturbation wavelike that typically…

## Scientific method

The scientific method is an investigative process for experimentation and…

## Displacement

The displacement of an object is defined as the vector…

## Scientific notation

In many disciplines of science and engineering, very large and…

## Absolute

Absolute means not limited by exceptions or conditions. What does…

## Length

The length, quantitatively and objectively, identifies a material body according…

## Mass

The mass (or inertial mass) represents the amount of matter…

## Inertia

Inertia is the resistance, of any physical object, to any…

## Quantity value

In metrology, the quantity value represents the number and the…

## Aberration of starlight

Aberration of starlight is the difference between the observed position…

## Spherical aberration

Spherical aberration is a defect of spherical mirrors and some…

## Comatic aberration

Comatic aberration (or coma), in an optical system refers to…

## Aberration

In optics, the aberration is a flaw in the imaging…

## Chromatic aberration

Chromatic aberration (also called chromatic distortion and spherochromatism) is a…

## Defocus aberration

Defocus aberration is a type of aberration in which an…

## Focus

In geometrical optics, is called focus (or image point) the…

## Defocus

Defocus is the aberration in which an image is simply…

## Petzval field curvature

Petzval field curvature, named for Joseph Petzval, describes the optical…

## Astigmatism

In optics, astigmatism is a lens or mirror defect in…

## Distortion (optics)

In geometric optics, distortion is a type of optical aberration…

Adhesion is the tendency or the force of attraction between…

## Cohesion

Cohesion refers to the tendency of similar or identical particles/surfaces…

## Positron

The positron in physics is the antiparticle of the electron,…

## Positronium

Positronium is an unstable system consisting of a positron and…

## Axion

The axion is a hypothetical elementary particle whose existence was…

## Acoustics

Acoustics is the branch of physics that deals with the…

## Nanotechnology

Nanotechnologies are the set of methods of manipulation, control, and…

## Physics

With the term “physics,” the ancients designated philosophical reflection on…

## Quantum optics

Quantum optics is the study, and application of the quantum…

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay, radioactivity or nuclear…

Radioactive decay is determined by quantum mechanics – which is…

## Electromagnetism

Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of…

## Fluid flow

A fluid flow may be described in two different ways:…

## Fluid

In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually deforms…

## Fluid mechanics

Fluid mechanics is one of the oldest and broadest fields…

The viscosity ($$\mu$$) is that property of matter, defined as…