In terms of communication, information is expressed either as the content of a message or through direct or indirect observation. That which is perceived can be construed as a message in its own right, and in that sense, information is always conveyed as the content of a message.

Information relates to both data and knowledge, as data represents values attributed to parameters, and knowledge signifies understanding of a concept.

Information is a fundamental concept in cybernetics. In cybernetics one studies machines and living organisms only from the point of view of their ability to absorb the information given to them, to store information in a “memory,” to transmit it over a communication channel, and to transform it into “signals.” The intuitive picture of information relative to specific quantities or phenomena contained in certain data is developed in cybernetics.


  1. Information. Wikipedia.
  2. Information. Yu.V. Prokhorov (originator), Encyclopedia of Mathematics. URL: